Online Access And Computer Security
for class 11 Computer Science with Python
Q 1. Describe why authentication is important for file
ans. Authentication is the process of determining whether someone is a legal user. It is the process of identifying an individual, usually based on a username and password. Authentication merely ensures that the individual is who he or she claims to be, but says nothing about the access rights of the individual. It is used a primary step for
file protection from unauthorized users.
Q 2. Viruses, pharming and phishing are all examples of potential Internet security issues. explain what is meant by each of these three terms.
ans. Viruses refers to a computer program/software that replicates/copies itself. It can delete or alter files/data stored on a computer and can even make the computer “crash”/run slow.
Pharming is a way to trick unsuspecting users by inserting malicious code/software installed on a user’s hard drive/actual web server. This code redirects users to a fake website (without his/her knowledge). Pharming takes place generally to obtain personal/financial information/data.
Phishing is another way to trick unsuspecting user where legitimate-looking emails are sent to a user. As soon as recipient opens/clicks on link in the emails/attachment,
the user is directed to a fake website
(without his/her knowledge).
Like pharming, phishing also takes place generally to obtain personal/financial information/data.
Q 3. What is anti-viruses software ?
ans. There are a number of malicious software (‘malware’) programs that can cause damage to computers. These include viruses, worms, Trojan horses (Trojans), malware, spyware etc.
Anti-virus software’s aredesigned to :-
detect and block attacks from malware. This software when loaded, resides in memory and checks every operation id it is malicious or not. If it finds any suspicious activity, it blocks that operation and saves our computer.
Q 4. Internet security is a major issue for many people. The following is a list of five typical security issues:
* pharming * phishing * spyware * viruses
For each one, describe the security issue and suggest a way of protecting against it.
Q 5. What is the need for secure passwords ?
ans. When more than one person uses a network, it is important to have user IDs and passwords. Only someone with a valid login and password can access the network. It also helps the network manager trace unusual activity to a specific user.
A weak password makes it easy for someone to try to guess your login details. A good password will have a mix of upper case and lower case letters, numbers and special characters. A good combination of these makes a strong password and difficult to crack it. Hence a strong password keeps our system secure.
Q 6. What measures should you take to keep data secure ?
ans. Measures that can be taken to keep data secure include :
(i) Making regular backups of files(backup copies should be stored in fireproof safes or in another building).
(ii) Protecting against viruses by running anti-virus software.
(iii) Using a system of strong password so that access to data is restricted.
(iv) Safe storage of important files stored on removable disks, e.g., locked away in a safe location.
Tricking user to give login ids and password by authentic looking site addresses.
A malicious code written to harm the data and applications.
Self replicating program that eats up all the memory/space.